Martin Luther and the Reformation

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow using complete sentences on your own paper.

Latin Mass

Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium, et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, not factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. ET INCARNATUS EST DE SPIRITU SANCTO EX MARIA VIRGINE: ET HOMO FACTUS EST. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis, sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia
die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum:

1. What words in here do you recognize?
2. Where might you hear this spoken?
3. What do you think this passage is about?

Luther and the Bible
Read the following passage from the Bible and it changed his view on God and salvation.

Romans 1:16-17: I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: "The righteous will live by faith."

4. According to this passage who can receive salvation?
5. According to this passage from where does righteousness come?
6. According to this passage how will the righteous live?
7. Are the pope or the church mentioned in this passage?

Luther and the Bible 2

Romans 3:22-26: This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood. He did this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished— he did it to demonstrate his justice at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus.

8. According to this passage from where does righteousness come?
9. According to this passage which people have sinned?
10. According to this passage how much work do people have to do to be justified?
11. Why after reading this passage might Luther challenge the power of the Pope?

Torture and the Inquisition

This was the most common method of torture during the Inquisition.

12. What do you think they are doing to the man?
13. What clues in the picture make you think that?
14. What do you think the man with the pen is writing?
15. Why do you think they would use this method of torture instead of some of the others we’ve seen?

The 95 Theses

Martin Luther posted 95 arguments against the pope on the door of Wittenberg Church, here are some of them.

-“If the pope truly has the power to forgive sins, shouldn’t he do it for free out of love instead of for money?”
-“All those who are sure of salvation because of indulgences will be doomed to Hell, together with their teachers.”
-“Christians should be taught that one who gives to the poor, or lends to the needy, does a better action than if he purchases indulgences.”
-“The pope’s indulgences cannot remove even the guilt of the smallest sins.”
-“Since the pope is the richest man in the world, why doesn’t he use his own money to build churches instead of poor believers?”

16. How does Luther feel about indulgences?
17. How does Luther feel about the pope?
18. Do you agree with Luther? Why or why not?


Luther drew cartoons in his books to help the people understand his point. The first picture shows Jesus Christ carrying the cross on which he would be crucified. The second picture shows the pope in a very different situation.

19. Describe the 2nd picture in detail.
20. Explain the differences between the two pictures.
21. What point do you think Luther was trying to make?

Cartoons 2

Luther drew cartoons in his books to help the people understand his point. The first picture shows the birth of Jesus Christ in a stable attended by animals. The second picture shows the pope in a very different situation.
22. Describe the 2nd picture in detail.
23. Explain the differences between the two pictures.
24. What point do you think Luther was trying to make?

Monk Angelo Clareno describes Inquisition torture

“The furious inquisitor selected one of them who seemed more fervent than the others and was a priest, and ordered that he be tortured. The torturer entered with his assistants and tied the prisoner's hands behind his back. Then he had him raised up by means of a pulley attached to the roof of the house, which was very high. After the prisoner had hung there for an hour the rope was released suddenly. The idea was that, broken by the intense pain, he would be defeated and confess that he had once been a heretic. After he had been raised and suddenly dropped many times they asked whether he would confess that he was or had been a heretic.

Driven out of his mind by anger, the inquisitor ordered that, dressed in a short tunic, the prisoner be put first in a bath of hot water, then of cold. Then, with a stone tied to his feet, he was raised up again, kept there for a while, and dropped again, and his shins were poked with reeds as sharp as swords. Again and again he was hauled up until, on the thirteenth elevation, the rope broke and he fell from a great height with the stone still tied to his feet. As that destroyer of the faithful stood looking at him, he lay there only half alive, with his body shattered. The treacherous man's servant's took the body and
disposed of it in a cesspool.”

25. After reading this description. Read it again. Think about the fact that this happened to real people in history. Summarize the passage.

Adapated from Mr. Roughton